Federal Court Links

 Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. Article III of the U.S. Constitution created the Supreme Court and authorized Congress to pass laws establishing a system of lower courts.

U.S. Supreme Court

U.S. Courts of Appeals

There are 13 appellate courts that sit below the U.S. Supreme Court, and they are called the U.S. Courts of Appeals. The 94 federal judicial districts are organized into 12 regional circuits, each of which has a court of appeals.  The appellate court’s task is to determine whether or not the law was applied correctly in the trial court. Appeals courts consist of three judges and do not use a jury.

First Circuit
Second Circuit
Third Circuit
Fourth Circuit
Fifth Circuit
Sixth Circuit
Seventh Circuit
Eighth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
Tenth Circuit
Eleventh Circuit
District of Columbia Circuit
Federal Circuit

A court of appeals hears challenges to district court decisions from courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies.

In addition, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws, and cases decided by the U.S. Court of International Trade and the U.S. Court of Federal Claims.

District Courts

The nation’s 94 district or trial courts are called U.S. District Courts. District courts resolve disputes by determining the facts and applying legal principles to decide who is right.

Trial courts include the district judge who tries the case and a jury that decides the case. Magistrate judges assist district judges in preparing cases for trial. They may also conduct trials in misdemeanor cases.

There is at least one district court in each state, and the District of Columbia. Each district includes a U.S. bankruptcy court as a unit of the district court. Four territories of the United States have U.S. district courts that hear federal cases, including bankruptcy cases: Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

There are also two special trial courts. The Court of International Trade addresses cases involving international trade and customs laws. The U.S. Court of Federal Claims deals with most claims for money damages against the U.S. government.

Bankruptcy Courts

Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction over bankruptcy cases involving personal, business, or farm bankruptcy. This means a bankruptcy case cannot be filed in state court. Through the bankruptcy process, individuals or businesses that can no longer pay their creditors may either seek a court-supervised liquidation of their assets, or they may reorganize their financial affairs and work out a plan to pay their debts.

 

U.S. District Courts U.S. Bankruptcy Courts
Alabama Middle
Alabama Northern
Alabama Southern
Alabama Middle
Alabama Northern
Alabama Southern
Alaska Alaska
Arizona Arizona
Arkansas Eastern
Arkansas Western
Arkansas Eastern & Western
California Central
California Eastern
California Northern
California Southern
California Central
California Eastern
California Northern
California Southern
Colorado Colorado
Connecticut Connecticut
Delaware Delaware
District of Columbia District of Columbia
Florida Middle
Florida Northern
Florida Southern
Florida Middle
Florida Northern
Florida Southern
Georgia Middle
Georgia Northern
Georgia Southern
Georgia Middle
Georgia Northern
Georgia Southern
Guam Guam
Hawaii Hawaii
Idaho Idaho
Illinois Central
Illinois Northern
Illinois Southern
Illinois Central
Illinois Northern
Illinois Southern
Indiana Northern
Indiana Southern
Indiana Northern
Indiana Southern
Iowa Northern
Iowa Southern
Iowa Northern
Iowa Southern
Kansas Kansas
Kentucky Eastern
Kentucky Western
Kentucky Eastern
Kentucky Western
Louisiana Eastern
Louisiana Middle
Louisiana Western
Louisiana Eastern
Louisiana Middle
Louisiana Western
Maine Maine
Maryland Maryland
Massachusetts Massachusetts
Michigan Eastern
Michigan Western
Michigan Eastern
Michigan Western
Minnesota Minnesota
Mississippi Northern
Mississippi Southern
Mississippi Northern
Mississippi Southern
Missouri Eastern
Missouri Western
Missouri Eastern
Missouri Western
Montana Montana
Nebraska Nebraska
Nevada Nevada
New Hampshire New Hampshire
New Jersey New Jersey
New Mexico New Mexico
New York Eastern
New York Northern
New York Southern
New York Western
New York Eastern
New York Northern
New York Southern
New York Western
North Carolina Eastern
North Carolina Middle
North Carolina Western
North Carolina Eastern
North Carolina Middle
North Carolina Western
North Dakota North Dakota
Northern Mariana Islands
Ohio Northern
Ohio Southern
Ohio Northern
Ohio Southern
Oklahoma Eastern
Oklahoma Northern
Oklahoma Western
Oklahoma Eastern
Oklahoma Northern
Oklahoma Western
Oregon Oregon
Pennsylvania Eastern
Pennsylvania Middle
Pennsylvania Western
Pennsylvania Eastern
Pennsylvania Middle
Pennsylvania Western
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
Rhode Island Rhode Island
South Carolina South Carolina
South Dakota South Dakota
Tennessee Eastern
Tennessee Middle
Tennessee Western
Tennessee Eastern
Tennessee Middle
Tennessee Western
Texas Eastern
Texas Northern
Texas Southern
Texas Western
Texas Eastern
Texas Northern
Texas Southern
Texas Western
Utah Utah
Vermont Vermont
Virgin Islands
Virginia Eastern
Virginia Western
Virginia Eastern
Virginia Western
Washington Eastern
Washington Western
Washington Eastern
Washington Western
West Virginia Northern
West Virginia Southern
West Virginia Northern
West Virginia Southern
Wisconsin Eastern
Wisconsin Western
Wisconsin Eastern
Wisconsin Western
Wyoming Wyoming

Bankruptcy Appellate Panels

Bankruptcy Appellate Panels (BAPs) are 3-judge panels authorized to hear appeals of bankruptcy court decisions. These panels are a unit of the federal courts of appeals, and must be established by that circuit.

Five circuits have established panels: First CircuitSixth CircuitEighth CircuitNinth Circuit, and Tenth Circuit.

U.S. Probation & Pretrial Services

Alabama Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
Alabama Southern Prob/Pretrial Office

Alaska

Arizona Pretrial Services
Arizona Probation Office

Arkansas Western Prob/Pretrial Office

California Central Pretrial Services
California Central Probation Office
California Eastern Probation Office
California Northern Probation Office
California Southern Pretrial Services
California Southern Probation Office

Colorado Prob/Pretrial Office

Connecticut Prob/Pretrial Office

Delaware Prob/Pretrial Office

District of Columbia Prob/Pretrial Office

Florida Northern Prob/Pretrial Services

Georgia Middle Prob/Pretrial Office
Georgia Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
Georgia Southern Prob/Pretrial Office

Hawaii

Guam Prob/Pretrial Office

Idaho Prob/Pretrial Office

Illinois Northern Pretrial Services
Illinois Northern Probation Office
Illinois Southern Prob/Pretrial Office

Indiana Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
Indiana Southern Prob/Pretrial Office

Iowa Southern Prob/Pretrial Office

Kansas Prob/Pretrial Office

Kentucky Western Prob/Pretrial Office

Louisiana Middle Prob/Pretrial Office

Maine Prob/Pretrial Office

Maryland

Massachusetts Probation Office

Michigan Eastern Pretrial Services
Michigan Eastern Probation Office
Michigan Western Prob/Pretrial Office

Minnesota Prob/Pretrial Office

Mississippi Southern Prob/Pretrial Services

Missouri Eastern Pretrial Services
Missouri Eastern Probation Office
Missouri Western Prob/Pretrial Office

Montana

Nebraska Pretrial Services
Nebraska Probation Office

Nevada

New Hampshire Prob/Pretrial Office

New Jersey Pretrial Services
New Jersey Probation Office

New Mexico Prob/Pretrial Office

New York Eastern Pretrial Services
New York Eastern Probation Office
New York Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
New York Southern Probation Office
New York Western Prob/Pretrial Office

North Carolina Eastern Prob/Pretrial Office
North Carolina Middle Prob/Pretrial Office
North Carolina Western Prob/Pretrial Office

North Dakota

Ohio Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
Ohio Southern Pretrial Services
Ohio Southern Probation Office

Oklahoma Eastern Prob/Pretrial Office
Oklahoma Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
Oklahoma Western Prob/Pretrial Office

Oregon Probation Office

Pennsylvania Eastern Probation Office
Pennsylvania Western Prob/Pretrial Office

Puerto Rico Prob/Pretrial Office

Rhode Island Prob/Pretrial Office

South Carolina

South Dakota Probation and Pretrial Services

Tennessee Eastern Prob/Pretrial Office
Tennessee Middle Prob/Pretrial Office
Tennessee Western Probation Office

Texas Eastern Prob/Pretrial Office
Texas Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
Texas Southern Probation Office
Texas Western Pretrial Services
Texas Western Probation Office

Utah

Vermont Prob/Pretrial Office

Virginia Eastern Prob/Pretrial Office

Washington Western Prob/Pretrial Office

West Virginia Northern Prob/Pretrial Office
West Virginia Southern Prob/Pretrial Office

Wisconsin Eastern Prob/Pretrial Office
Wisconsin Western Prob/Pretrial Office

Wyoming Prob/Pretrial Office

Article I Courts

Congress created several Article I, or legislative courts, that do not have full judicial power. Judicial power is the authority to be the final decider in all questions of Constitutional law, all questions of federal law and to hear claims at the core of habeas corpus issues. Article I Courts are:

 


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